Wednesday, 2 November 2011

Diabetology



Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body stops producing or fails to properly utilise insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by constant high levels of blood glucose (sugar). The human body has to maintain the blood glucose level at a very narrow range, which is done with the help of insulin and glucagon. The function of glucagon is to release glucose from the liver to the blood stream so that, it can be transported to body tissues and cells for the production of energy.

There are three main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes impede a person life prominently. When breakdown of glucose is stopped completely, body uses fat and protein for producing the energy. Due to this mechanism symptoms like polydipsia, polyuria, polyphegia, and excessive weight loss can be observed in diabetics. Desired blood sugar of human body should be maintained between 70 mg/dl -110 mg/dl at fasting state.
If blood sugar is less than 70 mg/dl, it is termed as hypoglycemia and if more than 110 mg /dl, it’s hyperglycemia.

Diabetes is the primary reason for adult blindness, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), gangrene and amputations. Overweight, lack of exercise, family history and stress increases the likelihood of developing diabetes. When blood sugar level is constantly high it leads to kidney failure, cardiovascular problems and neuropathy. Patients with diabetes are 4 times more likely to have coronary heart disease and stroke. In addition, Gestational diabetes is more dangerous for pregnant women and their fetus.

The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications.
Neurology is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomous nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissues, such as muscles.
Cardiology is the specialised branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the cardiovascular systems. This field has various super-specializations in the branches of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart diseases and electrophysiological disorders. 
Nephrology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, as well as the care of those patients who require renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients.


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