Friday, 30 March 2012

Basic Projects of Diabetic

Diabetes Action Online
Recognising the increasing burden of diabetes on the health sector, Diabetes Action Online is dedicated to improving the quality of diabetes care. MV Diabetic Hospital in collaboration with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), it speaks to decision makers at all levels of the health care system walking them through the improvement process with supporting documents, tools and expert guidance.

Diabetes Action Online is one of the five goals of the Diabetes Action Now programme, a joint programme of the MV Diabetic Hospital and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). By stimulating and supporting the adoption of effective measures for the surveillance, prevention and control of diabetes, it aims to substantially increase the global awareness about diabetes and its complications.

Wednesday, 1 February 2012

Stem cells

Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells.

In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells (these are called pluripotent cells), but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

There are three sources of autologous adult stem cells: 1) Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest), 2) Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction, and 3) Blood, which requires extraction through pheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures.

Highly plastic adult stem cells are routinely used in medical therapies, for example bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s

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Friday, 6 January 2012

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic Kidney Disease
  • High blood sugar can overwork the kidneys, causing them to stop working properly.
  • When diagnosed early, kidney disease can be slowed with treatment.
  • When diagnosed later, kidney failure usually results.
  • Once kidneys fail, replacement therapy via dialysis or transplant is necessary. 
Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them are millions of tiny blood vessels that act as filters. Their job is to remove waste products from the blood. 

Sometimes this filtering system breaks down. Diabetes can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail. Failing kidneys lose their ability to filter out waste products, resulting in kidney disease.

How does diabetes cause kidney disease?

When our bodies digest the protein we eat, the process creates waste products. In the kidneys, millions of tiny blood vessels (capillaries) with even tinier holes in them act as filters. As blood flows through the blood vessels, small molecules such as waste products squeeze through the holes. These waste products become part of the urine. Useful substances, such as protein and red blood cells, are too big to pass through the holes in the filter and stay in the blood.

Who gets kidney disease?

Not everyone with diabetes develops kidney disease. Factors that can influence kidney disease development include genetics, blood sugar control, and blood pressure.

What are the symptoms?


The kidneys work hard to make up for the failing capillaries so kidney disease produces no symptoms until almost all function is gone. Also, the symptoms of kidney disease are not specific. The first symptom of kidney disease is often fluid buildup. Other symptoms of kidney disease include loss of sleep, poor appetite, upset stomach, weakness, and difficulty concentrating.

Monday, 26 December 2011

Diabetic nephropathy

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Each kidney is made of hundreds of thousands of small units called nephrons. These structures filter your blood and help remove wastes from your body.
In people with diabetes, the nephrons thicken and slowly become scarred over time. The kidneys begin to leak and protein (albumin) passes into the urine.

The exact cause is unknown. Poor control of blood sugar is thought to lead to kidney damage. If you also have high blood pressure, kidney damage is even more likely.
In some cases, your family history may also play a role. Not everyone with diabetes develops this kidney problem.
People with diabetes who smoke, and those with type 1 diabetes that started before age 20 have a higher risk for kidney problems.

People of African-American, Hispanic, andAmerican Indian origin are also more likely to have kidney damage.




Often, there are no symptoms as the kidney damage starts and slowly gets worse. Kidney damage can begin 5 to 10 years before symptoms start.
People who have more severe kidney disease may have a poor appetite, feel tired most of the time, and have a general ill feeling.
Headache,nausea and vomiting,swelling of the legs, and many other symptoms may also occur.
See also: End stage kidney disease

Signs and tests


Tests your doctor orders can often find signs of kidney problems in the early stages.
Once a year, you should have a urine test. It looks for a protein called albumin. Because the test looks for small amounts of albumin, it is sometimes called a test for microalbuminuria.
When you have diabetes, your doctor will test your urine for too much protein at least once a year. Too much protein is often a sign of kidney damage.

High blood pressure often goes along with diabetic nephropathy. You may have high blood pressure that begins quickly or is hard to control.
Your doctor will also check your kidneys with the following blood tests every yea



The goal of treatment is to keep the kidney disease from getting worse. Keeping your blood pressure under control (under 130/80) is one of the best ways to slow kidney damage.
Your doctor may prescribe medicines to lower your blood pressure and protect your kidneys from more damage. Often, the best types of medicine to use are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
Eating a low-fat diet, taking drugs to control lipids, and getting regular exercise can also help prevent or slow kidney damage.

Tuesday, 29 November 2011

Diabetes Mellitus Symptom:

Diabetes is a chronic and complex disease, caused by having too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. This happens when there is low or no insulin production or improper utilization of insulin.

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is considered as a metabolic disorder.  Metabolism is process in an organism to manufacture and utilize food and waste materials are eliminated. Our body digestive system breakdown food; absorbs, manufactures, utilizes the nutrients and eliminates waste.

Diabetes in the US:

Currently in the United States 7.8% of the population or around 23.6 million people have diabetes with 5.7 million being undiagnosed. Most of those diagnosed have Type-2 diabetes and are usually 45 years of age or older. But this snapshot is changing as more children and adolescents are increasingly being diagnosed with this type of diabetes

Diabetes in India:


Stopping the Epidemic:

It is really fairly simple - medical professionals believe that turning off the TV and computer and going outside to walk or exercise will go a long way to stopping this epidemic. Other suggestions include cutting calories in diets, snacking on whole grain and high-fiber foods, avoiding smoking and alcohol, exercising regularly and getting stress levels under control are pro-active ways to keep this diabetic epidemic from continuing to grow

Wednesday, 2 November 2011


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body stops producing or fails to properly utilise insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by constant high levels of blood glucose (sugar). The human body has to maintain the blood glucose level at a very narrow range, which is done with the help of insulin and glucagon. The function of glucagon is to release glucose from the liver to the blood stream so that, it can be transported to body tissues and cells for the production of energy.

There are three main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes impede a person life prominently. When breakdown of glucose is stopped completely, body uses fat and protein for producing the energy. Due to this mechanism symptoms like polydipsia, polyuria, polyphegia, and excessive weight loss can be observed in diabetics. Desired blood sugar of human body should be maintained between 70 mg/dl -110 mg/dl at fasting state.
If blood sugar is less than 70 mg/dl, it is termed as hypoglycemia and if more than 110 mg /dl, it’s hyperglycemia.

Diabetes is the primary reason for adult blindness, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), gangrene and amputations. Overweight, lack of exercise, family history and stress increases the likelihood of developing diabetes. When blood sugar level is constantly high it leads to kidney failure, cardiovascular problems and neuropathy. Patients with diabetes are 4 times more likely to have coronary heart disease and stroke. In addition, Gestational diabetes is more dangerous for pregnant women and their fetus.

The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications.
Neurology is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomous nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissues, such as muscles.
Cardiology is the specialised branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the cardiovascular systems. This field has various super-specializations in the branches of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart diseases and electrophysiological disorders. 
Nephrology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, as well as the care of those patients who require renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients.

Monday, 3 October 2011

Childhood Obesity Facts

About This Condition:

    Excessive weight in children and adolescents is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In the United States, 13% of children aged 6 to 11 years and 14% of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years are overweight, and among adolescents the percentage is three times higher than it was 20 years ago. Major contributors to childhood obesity include genetics, unhealthy diets, and sedentary lifestyles. Overweight children often become adults with weight problems that contribute to a wide variety of health problems, but even during childhood and adolescence, overweight can contribute to such disorders as type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, insulinresistance, and liverdisease. Being overweight also has social and psychological consequences for children in terms of social discrimination, poor self-esteem, and depression.
Parents, family members, and others who are important people in a child’s life can either help or harm an obese child’s situation. As with all children, those with weight problems need acceptance, support, and encouragement from their family, and the eating, exercising, and other health habits of family members play important roles in influencing the same behaviors in children.
The proper weight for a growing child or adolescent should be determined with the help of a doctor or other qualified health professional, who can also determine whether any unusual medical problems might be contributing to weight gain, whether any current health problems exist that are related to overweight, and appropriate weight control methods. Treating obesity should not include overly restrictive or fad diets that are missing essential nutrients. In fact, weight loss is not necessarily appropriate for a growing child. Often the best goal for an overweight child is to maintain their current weight as they grow taller.
Holistic Options:

Behavior-change techniques are considered useful for helping people break old habits and form more healthful habits. These techniques may be learned from counselingprofessionals, support groups, educational programs, or books.  Limited research suggests that training parents alone is superior to training either children alone or training both parents and children. Some authorities suggest that training parents alone produces the best results because this avoids affecting the child’s self-esteem and willingness to change, which might result from labeling him or her as “the patient.”

Problem-solving techniques are used in some types of counseling to help people maintain changes in their behavior. In one controlled study, teaching problem-solving techniques to parents in addition to behavior-change techniques improved weight loss results in obese children compared with a group learning only behavior-change techniques. However, another controlled study found no additional benefit when problem-solving training was given to either the child or to both child and parent.
For support and information, parents can also try the following resources:
The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity:
Shapedown for Parents, Kids & Teens